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ISLAND DIRECTORY

Vanuatu     [3]
(Independent since 1980 from United Kingdom and France)
LAND AREA: 12190 sq. km     SEA AREA: 710000 sq. km
NUMBER OF ISLANDS BY SIZE (sq. km):
>17,000 >10,000 >1,000 >100 >10 >1 <1 Unknown TOTAL
0 0 2 12 16 8 1 42 81
DEMOGRAPHY
  POPULATION: 169000 (1996)
  DENSITY: 14 persons/sq. km    GROWTH RATE: 3%/year
  POP AGR/FISH/MINING: 12%
  URBAN POP: 19% (1994), versus 9% (1960), Annual Growth: 3.8%
  LIFE EXPECTANCY: 65.9 years,  ADULT LITERACY: 64.0%
  INFANT MORTALITY: 44 per/1000 (1994), versus 141 (1960)
  HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX: 0.547
ECONOMY
  GNP: US$0.2 billion,  Annual Growth Rate GNP/Capita: 0.5%
  GDP/Capita: $821  GDP/Capita PPP: $2276
  GDP/Capita: 1960 $0, 1970 $0, 1980 $807, 1990 $904
  OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE: $46 million  ODA%GNP: 24.5%
  ODA/Capita: $288
ENVIRONMENT (see also individual islands)
  TOTAL FOREST AREA: 900,000 ha, 73.8% of land area, 5.3 ha/capita
  NATURAL FOREST AREA: 893,000 ha
  ARABLE LAND: 1.6% of land area
SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: ca. 870 vascular plants, including 130 endemics (15%) 31 endemic orchids (39%) Insects: 71 species of butterflies, with 5 only in Vanuatu, 26 shared with PNG and/or Solomon Islands; southern islands with distinctive fauna. 12 species of ants and termites, 5 endemic (42%) Other invertebrates: 76 species of land snails, including 57 endemics, high generic endemicity. 6 Partulidae 3 freshwater molluscs 22 species of earthworms, including 11 endemics (50%) Reptiles-Amphibians: 22 species, including 4 endemic lizards Perochirus guentheri (Saw-tailed Gecko) group endemic, Efate and Anatom, known from 4 specimens. Emoia speiseri (Speiser's Skink) group endemic, Ambrym, Anatom, Efate, Malakula. Birds: 57 species of land birds, 2 endemic genera and 5 other endemic species Ptilinopus tannensis (Silver-shouldered Fruit Dove) group endemic Ducula bakeri (Baker's Pigeon) group endemic Halcyon farquhari (Chestnut-bellied Kingfisher) group endemic Neolage banksiana (Vanuatu Flycatcher) monospecific genus, group endemic Phylidonyris notabilis (White-bellied Honeyeater) group endemic Zosterops flavifrons (Yellow-fronted White-eye) group endemic Aplonis santovestris (Santo Mountain Starling) endemic to Espiritu Santo Mammals: 12 species of bats, including 1 endemic Dugong dugon (Dugong) Vulnerable (RDB) but healthy populations reported throughout Vanuatu under no present threat (1987)
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION: 176 kw-hr/capita, versus 108 kw-hr/cap (1970)
INSTITUTIONS
GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENT/SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY:
Environment Unit, Ministry of Lands, Minerals and Fisheries has broad responsibility for environmental protection and co-ordination. National Advisory Committee on Environment reviews environmental impacts of major development projects.
ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION:
Forest Reserves can be created under Forestry Act 1982. Fisheries Act of 1983 provides for fisheries management, marine reserves and species protection. Mining activities are controlled by the Department of Geology under the Mines and Minerals Act, 1982. The Wildlife Protection (Birds) Regulations administered by the Department of Agriculture give total protection to 16 species, closed season for 11 species and an export ban on 11 species.
ENVIRONMENT/SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS:
Vanuatu Natural Science Society, Port Vila, Vanuatu
REFERENCES:

Last updated 11/02/98


Islands of Vanuatu
Ambae (Vanuatu)
Ambrym (Vanuatu)
Aneityum (Vanuatu)
Aniwa (Vanuatu)
Aore (Vanuatu)
Efate (Vanuatu)
Emae (Vanuatu)
Epi (Vanuatu)
Erromango (Vanuatu)
Espiritu Santo (Vanuatu)
Futuna (Vanuatu)
Hiu (Vanuatu)
Loh (Vanuatu)
Lopevi (Vanuatu)
Maewo (Vanuatu)
Malakula (Vanuatu)
Malo (Vanuatu)
Mere Lava (Vanuatu)
Merig (Vanuatu)
Metoma (Vanuatu)
Mota (Vanuatu)
Mota Lava (Vanuatu)
Nguna (Vanuatu)
Paama (Vanuatu)
Pentecost (Vanuatu)
Reef Islands (Vanuatu)
Santa Maria (Vanuatu)
Tanna (Vanuatu)
Tegua (Vanuatu)
Toga (Vanuatu)
Tongoa (Vanuatu)
Ureparapara (Vanuatu)
Vanua Lava (Vanuatu)
Vot Tande (Vanuatu)


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Page last updated: 02/03/98