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ISLAND DIRECTORY


Islands of Malta

Gozo (Ghawdex)  - including Fungus Rock    [1202]
   Group: Archipelago: Maltese Archipelago
   Country: Malta
Lat: 36.05º N   Long : 14.26º E
Area: 67.1 sq. km   Altitude: 191 m
Shoreline: 42.6 km (scale 1:)   Coastal Index: 0.6349
Depth to nearest land: >101 m
Nearest island: 4 km   group: 90 km
Nearest continent: Europe    Distance: 240 km    Isolation Index: 27
ISLAND TYPE: low limestone      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE:   temperate  9-30C, 530 mm
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought, fire
   Threat Indicator: 2
ECOSYSTEMS:           
Mediterranean sclerophyll forest, scrub, garigue, clay slope community, grassland; spring, freshwater pool; sand dunes, beaches, rocky shores, seagrass beds, algal beds on rocky substrata
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 2  Marine: 0
moderate
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 3
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 1
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  same as Malta
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 25670 (1985)   Density: 382.6 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 0.5%/yr   Stable
  Habitat: villages   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 20%   Human Threat Indicator: 1
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3162 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: legislation
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 14
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 9   Moderate
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
Last updated: 18/02/90

Malta   - including Filfla, St. Paul's    [777]
   Group: Archipelago: Maltese Archipelago
   Country: Malta
Lat: 35.90º N   Long : 14.45º E
Area: 245.7 sq. km   Altitude: 253 m
Shoreline: 136.8 km (scale 1:)   Coastal Index: 0.5568
Depth to nearest land: >101 m
Nearest island: 96 km   group: 96 km
Nearest continent: Europe    Distance: 240 km    Isolation Index: 35
ISLAND TYPE: low limestone      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Coralline limestone plateaux and Globigerina limestone plains and low hills with steep cliffs to west, karstic topography and dry valleys; a few permanent springs. Terra soils, xerorendzinas and carbonate raw soils.
CLIMATE: moderate  temperate  9-30C, 530 mm
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 8    Marine: 3
Mediterranean sclerophyll forest (four remaining remnants), maquis (sclerophyllous scrub), garigue (bushes and annuals on karstland), grassland in degraded areas; watercourse and cliff communities; saltmarsh, springs and pools; sand dunes; rocky shores, beaches, seagrass beds, dense algae on hard substrata.
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  1013 24 181
Butterflies 20 2 0
Land snails 1 1 0
Rept/Amphib 13 4 12
Land birds 13 0 21
Mammals 21 0 16

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 150 freshwater and terrestrial algae 600 fungi (150 macrofungi), 5 endemic 300 lichens, 9 endemic 130 bryophytes, 2 endemic 11 ferns and other pteridophytes 2 gymnosperms 1000 angiosperms, 24 endemic, 181 threatened, 80 extinct Cremnophyton lanfrancoi (Chenopodiaceae) endemic monospecific genus, rare, on cliffs along southern coast Darniella melitensis (Chenopodiaceae) endemic Palaeocyanus crassifolius (Asteraceae) endemic monospecific genus, Vulnerable (RDB) on cliffs along southern coast Chiliadenus bocconei (Asteraceae) endemic Hyoseris frutescens (Asteraceae) endemic Helichrysum melitensis (Asteraceae) endemic, rare Anthemis urvilleana (Asteraceae) endemic Allium lojaconoi (Alliaceae) endemic Allium melitense (Alliaceae) endemic, indeterminate Allium sp. nov. (Alliaceae) endemic to Filfla, vulnerable Limonium zeraphae (Plumbaginaceae) endemic, rare Limonium melitense (Plumbaginaceae) endemic Limonium sp. nov. (Plumbaginaceae) endemic, endangered Romulea melitensis (Iridaceae) endemic, indeterminate Euphorbia melitensis (Euphorbiaceae) endemic Euphorbia exigua var. pyncnophylla (Euphorbiaceae) endemic to Maltese Islands and Lampedusa Anacamptis urvilleana (Orchidaceae) endemic, rare Ophrys sp. nov. (Orchidaceae) endemic, indeterminate Matthiola incana spp. melitensis (Brassicaceae) endemic, rare Orobanche nana f. melitensis (Orobanchaceae) endemic Orobanche densiflora f. melitensis (Orobanchaceae) endemic, rare Elatine gussonei (Elatinaceae) endemic to Maltese Islands and Lampedusa, rare Linaria pseudolaxiflora (Scrophulariaceae) endemic to Maltese Islands and Linosa, rare Daucus lopadusanus (Apiaceae) endemic to the Maltese Islands and Lampedusa, indeterminate Insects: over 4000 species, including 69 endemic 570 moths, 15 endemic, 25 threatened, 7 extinct Sciopetris melitensis (Psychidae) endemic, extinct(?) Antitinea deluccae (Tineidae) endemic, extinct(?) Pterolonche vallettae (Pterolonchidae) endemic, rare Oecogonia deluccai (Symmocidae) endemic, rare Symmoca melitensis (Symmocidae) endemic, extinct(?) Epidola melitensis (Gelechiidae) endemic, extinct(?) Megacraspedus lativalvellus (Gelechiidae) endemic, extinct(?) Aphelia amplana f. vallettai (Tortricidae) endemic Cydia sammuti (Tortricidae) endemic, indeterminate Phycitodes saxicola (Pyralidae) endemic, rare Agdistis symmetrica (Pterophoridae) endemic, indeterminate Agdistis melitensis (Pterophoridae) endemic, rare Mythimna putrescens vallettai (Noctuidae) endemic, rare Blepharita vallettai (Noctuidae) endemic Phragmatobia fuliginosa melitensis (Noctuidae) endemic 20 butterflies, 2 endemic Papilio machaon melitensis (Papilionidae) endemic Maniola jurtina hyperhispulla (Satyridae) endemic Other invertebrates: 96 crustacea, 6 endemic over 400 arachnids, 5 endemic 60 freshwater and terrestrial molluscs including 17 endemic, 25 threatened Pseudamnicola melitensis (Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae), endemic, endangered Pomatias sulcatus melitense (Pulmonata, Pomatiasidae), endemic(?) Lehmannia melitensis (Pulmonata, Limacidae) endemic, indeterminate Deroceras golcheri (Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) endemic Lampedusa imitatrix imitatrix (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) endemic vulnerable Lampedusa imitatrix melitensis (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) endemic, endangered Lampedusa imitatrix gattoi (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) endemic to Filfla, endangered Lampedusa macrostoma mamotica (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) endemic endangered Lampedusa macrostoma oscitans (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) endemic Lampedusa macrostoma scalaris (Pulmonata, Clausiliidae) endemic endangered Trochoidea spratti spratti (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) endemic Trochoidea spratti cucullus (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) endemic, endangered Trochoidea spratti despotti (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) endemic, vulnerable Trochoidea gharlapsi (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) endemic, vulnerable Cernuella caruanae (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae) endemic Marmorana melitensis (Pulmonata, Helicidae) endemic Reptiles/amphibians: 1 amphibian, 9 reptiles including 1 endemic with 4 subspecies, 12 threatened Podarcis filfolensis filfolensis (Reptilia) endemic, vulnerable Podarcis filfolensis maltensis (Reptilia) endemic Podarcis filfolensis kieselbachi (Reptilia) endemic, vulnerable Podarcis filfolensis generalensis (Reptilia) endemic, vulnerable Birds: 13 resident land birds, 57 regular visitors, 112 migrants, 21 threatened Mammals: 21 species, 16 threatened Marine life: 1 endemic mollusc
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 2  Marine: 0
moderate
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 2  Group: 3
    good
  Marine endemic species: 1   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 1  Group: 1
    1 mollusc
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery on Filfla
  caves
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  many introduced species
Oxalis pes-caprae (Cape Sorrel) introduced in 1809 from South Africa, now commonest local weed Iridomyrmex humilis (ant) rapidly spreading and deplacing many native species
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, capital Valletta
  Population: 319736 (1985)   Density: 1301 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 0.9%/yr   Stable
  Major Human Activities: tourism, manufacturing,, shipyards
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Colonized before 4000 BC, repeatedly invaded; 1463 km of roads, 112,827 vehicles (358 vehicles/sq.km, 1986); fragmented agricultural land, 68% of parcels under 1 ha; overgrazing by sheep and goats has destroyed forest and prevented regeneration; quarries; heavy tourism pressure on beaches; erosion from heavy runoff and poor maintenance of terraces; some nitrate pollution of water
  Habitat: villages   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Accessibility: port, airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 20%   Human Threat Indicator: 1
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3162 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 0  Marine: 0
  Number: 2   Area: Terrestrial: 0.1 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
Ghadira marsh nature reserve (6 ha) established 1978 Filfla Island nature reserve (2 ha) established 1988 18 other bird sanctuaries
DATA RELIABILITY: good recent summary in Schembri, 1988    Data Rel. Indicator: 3
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 32
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 54   Outstanding
CI-Marine: 9   Moderate
REFERENCES:
Schembri, P.J. and Sultana, J. (eds.). 1989. Red data list for the Maltese Islands. Department of Information, Valletta. Schembri, Patrick J. 1988. IUCN Islands Directory entry for the Maltese Islands (unpublished report). Department of Science, University of Malta, Msida, Malta. March 1988. 26 p.
Last updated: 18/02/90

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Page last updated: 02/03/98