Islands of Madeira (Portugal)

Madeira   - including Deserta Grande, Bugio    [906]
   Group: Archipelago: Madeira Archipelago
   Country: Portugal - Madeira   Region: Macaronesia
Lat: 32.75º N   Long : 16.97º W
Area: 749.4 sq. km   Altitude: 1861 m
Shoreline: 141.0 km (scale 1:1000000)   Coastal Index: 0.1882
Depth to nearest land: 2000 m
Nearest island: 450 km   group: 450 km
Nearest continent: Africa    Distance: 560 km    Isolation Index: 66
ISLAND TYPE: volcanic      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
Precipitous volcanic island with deep ravines to the coast, high plateau to west
CLIMATE: semi-arid  subtropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 5    Marine: 1
Coastal vegetation of shrubs, herbs and succulents (Aeonium sp.) now largely cultivated; transition zone 700-1250 m; subtropical evergreen cloud forest (Laurel forest - Laurisilva) with Ilex perado, Laurus azorica, Ocotea foetens, Persea indica and Apollonias barbujana, formerly widespread, now 16% of island in rugged north at 1300-1850 m; montane scrub with Erica above 1850 m
   Percent of land: Forested: 16%  Developed: 54%  Degraded: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  760 131 132
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 96 0
Rept/Amphib 0 1 0
Land birds 24 2 3
Mammals 0 0 1

Plants: 760 native species, 131 endemic 66% of endemic vascular plants are rare or threatened Endemics: 17 E, 30 V, 39 R, 22 K, 23 not threatened Other natives: 2 E, 17 V, 5 R Goodyera macrophylla (Madeiran Orchid) endemic Solanum trisectum, endemic Musschia wollastoni, endemic Geranium maderense, endemic Bunium brevifolium, endemic Invertebrates: 13 Dermaptera, 6 group endemics 13 Neuroptera, 8 group endemics 5 Sphecoidea, 1 group endemic 14 Lepidoptera, 1 group endemic 146 Chalcids, 40 group endemics 65 Millipedes, 32 group endemics 219 land molluscs, including 144 group endemic species and 47 subspecies 96 island endemic species with highly restricted distributions threatened by habitat destruction Reptiles/Amphibians: 1 endemic reptile Lacerta dugesii, endemic no endemic amphibians Birds: 24 native species, 2 endemic Columba trocaz (Madeira Laurel Pigeon) endemic, dense laurel forest, Rare Pterodroma madeira (Freira) endemic, 30-50 pairs on inland mountain cliffs, Endangered Pterodroma mollis madeira (Madeira Soft-plumaged Petrel) Rare Mammals: Pipistrellus maderensis (Bat) on Madeira and Las Palmas Monachus monachus (Mediterranean Monk Seal) breed in Desertas Islands but threatened by fishing, Endangered
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 2  Marine: 0
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 4  Group: 5
    high for plants and snails
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookeries, monk seal breeding
  best remaining example of laurel forest, crater lake
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 4
  380 plants, rats, cats, pigs, goats

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, discovered 1419
  Population: 250000    Density: 333.6 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 4.0%/yr   Increasing rapidly
  Major Human Activities: tourism, agriculture,, forest plantations
Most of forest cleared, 31% cultivated to 800 m for bananas, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables; 23% forest plantations of Pinus pinaster, Mimosa, Acacia and Eucalyptus globulus
  Accessibility: port, airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 22%   Human Threat Indicator: 1
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 2970 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 1
Conservation support: government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 3  Marine: 0
  Number: 5   Area: Terrestrial: 170.0 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
Natural Park of Madeira (1982) 100 sq. km of laurel forest Vale da Ribeira da Janela, Fanal and Ribeira Funda nature reserve/protected landscape (1320 ha) Rabacas and Folhadal nature reserve (1380 ha) Montado dos Pesseguiros, Cabeceira da Ribiera, Seixal and Lombo Barbinhas nature reserve/strict nature reserve (1380 ha) Caldeirao Verde, Moquinhas, Pico Casada and Tis Amarelos nature reserve/strict nature reserve (1700 ha) Faja da Nogueira and Ribiero Frio nature reserve/strict nature reserve (1300 ha)
DATA RELIABILITY: good    Data Rel. Indicator: 3
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 47   Outstanding
CI-Marine: 1   Low
Johnson, Timothy H. 1989. Unpublished ICBP profiles of Atlantic islands.
Last updated: 15/09/90

Porto Santo     [1237] - including Baixo, Cima, Cenouras, Fero
Group: Archipelago: Madeira Archipelago
Country: Portugal - Madeira: Atlantic
Lat: 33.07º NLong: 16.33º W
Area: 43.9 sq. km   Altitude: 93 m   Shoreline: 31.3 km (scale 1:1000000)
ISLAND TYPE: volcanic

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Page last updated: 02/03/98