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ISLAND DIRECTORY


Islands of American Samoa (United States)

Aunuu ('Aunu'u)    [1136]
   Group: Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 14.29º S   Long : 170.55º W
Area: 1.6 sq. km   Altitude: 61 m
Shoreline: 5.1 km (scale 1:100000)   Coastal Index: 3.1875
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 1 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3900 km    Isolation Index: 88
ISLAND TYPE: volcanic      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 5    Marine: 1
Diospyros coastal forest; Pandanus littoral scrub; mangroves; freshwater marsh; lake; fringing reef   Coral reefs   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 1  Marine: 0
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 3
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  crater lake and mud lake
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  Bufo marinus (Cane Toad)
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, 1 village
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: subsistence agriculture
  Habitat: one village   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 10%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3958 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: government support, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 5
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 8   Moderate
CI-Marine: 2   Low
Last updated: 06/12/88

Ofu   - including Nu'utele Islet    [1139]
   Group: Manua Islands   Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 14.19º S   Long : 169.65º W
Area: 7.5 sq. km   Altitude: 494 m
Shoreline: 14.1 km (scale 1:100000)   Coastal Index: 1.8800
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 95 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3900 km    Isolation Index: 97
ISLAND TYPE: volcanic      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Volcanic ridge with rich soil
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 1
Dysoxylum forest on slopes; scrub; fringing reef   Forest
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Other invertebrates: 6 land snails, 2 endemics, 1 apparently extinct endodontid   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 1  Marine: 0
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 1  Group: 3
    2 land snails
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 0   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery on islet
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: subsistence agriculture
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Coastal areas cultivated
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 10%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3958 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: government support, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 4
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 8   Moderate
CI-Marine: 2   Low
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 06/12/88

Olosega     [1138]
   Group: Manua Islands   Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 14.19º S   Long : 169.62º W
Area: 5.4 sq. km   Altitude: 639 m
Shoreline: 11.0 km (scale 1:100000)   Coastal Index: 2.0370
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 1 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3900 km    Isolation Index: 88
ISLAND TYPE: volcanic with pyramidal peak      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 1
Forested slopes; fringing reef   Forest
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 1  Marine: 0
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 3
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, coastal areas cultivated
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: subsistence agriculture
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 10%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3958 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: government support, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 4
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 7   Moderate
CI-Marine: 2   Low
Last updated: 06/12/88

Rose Atoll     [1474]
   Group:
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 14.53º S   Long : 175.87º W
Area: 0.1 sq. km   Altitude: 3 m
Submerged area <100 m: 0 sq. km   Reef area: 1 sq. km   Lagoon area: 6 sq. km
Depth to nearest land: 3000 m
Nearest island: 150 km   group: 700 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3900 km    Isolation Index: 101
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with islet and sand bank     Natural Protection Indicator: 2
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Small atoll 2 km in diameter with low coral islet and sand bank, lagoon 20 m deep with 1 small pass
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Atoll forest of Pisonia grandis; sand strand vegetation with Boerhavia and Portulacea (total 7 plant species); coralline algal reef flat with abundant corals on vertical surfaces; lagoon with sandy bottom and algae (CRD)   Forest
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  7 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 4 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 7 species Reptiles/amphibians: 4 species Eretmochelys imbricata (Hawksbill Turtle) nesting Chelonia mydas (Green Turtle) nesting Birds: 20 species of birds including seabirds Marine life: over 200 species of fish
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 3   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery turtle nesting area
  one of the smallest, most isolated, least disturbed atolls
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 0
  polynesian rat

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, protected, access controlled
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Landing prohibited without a permit, but evidence of illegal poaching by foreign fishing boats
Conservation support: government/public support; tenure; legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 0.1 sq. km    Marine: 7 sq. km
Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (8 ha land, 656 ha with reef and lagoon) (CRD)
DATA RELIABILITY: good    Data Rel. Indicator: 3
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 7   Moderate
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 06/12/88

Swains (Olosenga)    [1137]
   Group:
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 10
Lat: 11.06º S   Long : 171.08º W
Area: 3.6 sq. km   Altitude: 6 m
Shoreline: 7.2 km (scale 1:100000)   Coastal Index: 2.0000
Land < 5 m elevation: 3.5 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 200 km   group: 200 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4000 km    Isolation Index: 92
ISLAND TYPE: atoll      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones (reef devastated 1987)
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Some Hernandia atoll forest and scrub; windward and leeward atoll reefs and closed brackish lagoon
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 0   Marine: 1
  brackish lagoon
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 20 (1987)   Density: 5.6 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: -5.7%/yr   Decreasing
  Major Human Activities: coconuts, subsistence agriculture
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 80%   Human Threat Indicator: 3
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 3
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 2   Low
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
Last updated: 06/12/88

Tau (Ta'u)    [1140]
   Group: Manua Islands   Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 14.25º S   Long : 169.47º W
Area: 45.7 sq. km   Altitude: 965 m
Shoreline: 34.0 km (scale 1:100000)   Coastal Index: 0.7440
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 120 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3900 km    Isolation Index: 98
ISLAND TYPE: volcanic peak with crater      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:

CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 4    Marine: 1
Lowland and montane rain forest; montane scrub; cloud forest with Cyathea; fringing reef   Forest
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  0 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 9 5 4
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 1 1
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Other invertebrates: 9 land snails, including 5 endemic or restricted species, 4 not found in 1975 and probably extinct: 1 endodontid, 3 charopids Birds: (Sooty Rail) endemic subspecies, believed extinct, recently reported   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 2  Marine: 0
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 2  Group: 3
    5 snails, 1 bird
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  shearwaters and petrels
  intermittent lake in crater; important bird habitat
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: subsistence agriculture, coconuts
HUMAN IMPACTS:

  Habitat: villages   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 10%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3958 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: government and public support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 0  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 0.0 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
National Park established 1988
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 4
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 14   High
CI-Marine: 2   Low
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 06/12/88

Tutuila     [391]
   Group: Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: United States - American Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 14.30º S   Long : 169.75º W
Area: 142.3 sq. km   Altitude: 653 m
Shoreline: 101.3 km (scale 1:1000000)   Coastal Index: 0.7119
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 60 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3900 km    Isolation Index: 95
ISLAND TYPE: high volcanic      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Volcanic island of early pleistocene age (1.54 million years) with eroded mountain chain, steep slopes, and a more recent relatively flat volcanic platform
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 6    Marine: 3
Fragments of lowland rain forest (below 300 m) with Diospyros, Dysoxylum, Pometia and Syzygium; montane rain forest (remaining mostly on slopes at 300- 700 m) with Dysoxylum; montane scrub; swamps; streams; mangroves; mangrove lagoon; fringing reefs; submerged coral bank   Forest  Coral reefs,  Mangroves
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  0 2 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 19 11 4
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: Drypetes sp. (Euphorbiaceae) endemic, localized Elatostema tutuilense (Urticaceae) endemic, collected once Butterflies: Hypolimnas thompsoni (butterfly) group endemic Papilio godeffroyi (butterfly) group endemic, rare/indeterminate Other invertebrates: 19 land snails, 11 endemic, 4 presumed extinct or nearly extinct, including: Diastole matafaoi, endemic, on Mt. Matafao, indeterminate (possibly extinct) Samoana abbreviata (Short Samoan Tree Snail, Partulidae) endemic, indeterminate (possibly extinct) Marine life: 174 species of hard corals in 48 genera and subgenera Birds: Aplonis atrifuscus (Samoan Starling) group endemic, Rare Gymnomyza samoensis (Black-breasted Honeyeater) group endemic, Rare Halcyon recurvirostris* (Flat-billed Kingfisher) group endemic Lalage sharpei (Samoan Triller) group endemic Myiagra albiventris (White-vented Flycatcher) group endemic Pachycephala flavifrons (Yellow-fronted Whistler) group endemic Rhipidura nebulosa (Samoan Fantail)
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 2  Marine: 0
moderate
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 2  Group: 3
    2 plants, 11 snails
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  Mt. Matafao with rare land snails; reefs studied since 1917
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  several problem species
Achatina fulica (Giant African Snail) introduced 1975; considerable damage to subsistence gardens Bufo marinus (Cane Toad)
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, government centre
  Population: 30000    Density: 210.8 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 1.8%/yr   Increasing slowly
  Major Human Activities: government, tuna canning, subsistence agriculture
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Coastal urban development and center of government, particularly around Pago Pago Harbour, fish canneries; subsistence agriculture and other development have affected two thirds of the island and many coastal and reef areas
  Accessibility: port, airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 10%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 3958 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 2
Conservation support: government and public support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 3  Marine: 0
  Number: 2   Area: Terrestrial: 20.0 sq. km    Marine: 1 sq. km
National Park on north shore established 1988 (ca. 2000 ha) Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary (66 ha) (CRD)
DATA RELIABILITY: good    Data Rel. Indicator: 3
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 11
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 13   Moderate
CI-Marine: 3   Low
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 06/12/88

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