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ISLAND DIRECTORY


Islands of Kiribati

Abaiang     [1507]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 1.72º N   Long : 173.00º E
Area: 28.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 28.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 10 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 87
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 6 large islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 3
Coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
  Teirio islet
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Abemama     [1509]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 0.33º N   Long : 173.83º E
Area: 23.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 23.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 20 km   group: 700 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 90
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with more than 6 islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
  Accessibility: airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
Last updated: 07/12/88

Aranuka     [1510]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 0.17º N   Long : 173.58º E
Area: 15.5 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 15.5 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 5 km   group: 700 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 88
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 2 islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
Last updated: 07/12/88

Arorae     [1503]
Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
Country: Kiribati: Pacific
Lat: 2.65º SLong: 176.90º E Region: Oceania 11
Area: 26.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island

Banaba (Ocean)    [1499]
   Group:
   Country: Kiribati - Banaba Island   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 0.87º S   Long : 169.58º E
Area: 6.5 sq. km   Altitude: 81 m
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 300 km   group: 400 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 2800 km    Isolation Index: 90
ISLAND TYPE: raised coral      Natural Protection Indicator: 5
CLIMATE:   tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 1
Scrub; fringing reef
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, formerly inhabited, now abandoned
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: former phosphate mining
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 5   Low
CI-Marine: 6   Moderate
Last updated: 07/12/88

Beru     [1514]
   Group: Kingsmill Group   Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 1.25º S   Long : 176.00º E
Area: 21.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 21.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 35 km   group: 400 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 85
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 1 main islet      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 3
Coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
Last updated: 07/12/88

Birnie     [1518]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 3.67º S   Long : 171.83º W
Area: 0.2 sq. km   Altitude: 4 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 0.2 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 60 km   group: 700 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 101
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 2
Low atoll herbs; fringing reef
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  3 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
  least disturbed of the Phoenix islands
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, never inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
Conservation support: tenure, government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 0.2 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 5   Low
CI-Marine: 4   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Butaritari (Makin)    [1505]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 3.17º N   Long : 172.75º E
Area: 11.7 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 11.7 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 120 km   group: 400 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 90
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 10 islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Pisonia atoll forest on two islets; coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  seabird rookeries
  Kotabu and Nabini islets with forest and seabirds
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, W.W. II remnants
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations, subsistence agriculture, fishing
  Accessibility: airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 1   Low
CI-Marine: 2   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Caroline     [1854]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 10.00º S   Long : 150.25º W
Area: 3.8 sq. km   Altitude: 5 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 3.8 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 230 km   group: 830 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 115
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 38 islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Atoll 9.2 by 1.6 km with 38 islets around long shallow lagoon 5-7 m deep, many coral heads and patches, some in continuous East-West lines, clear water; no large passes
CLIMATE:   tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 5    Marine: 4
Atoll forest with Pisonia, mixed dense forest of Pisonia and Cordia, dense Messerschmidia argentea scrub, open Messerschmidia scrub, open coastal rubble; windward and leeward atoll reefs, lagoon with many Tridacna, patch reefs
   Percent of land: Forested: 99%  Developed: 0%  Degraded: 0%
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  15 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 3 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 15 native species 20 introduced Reptiles/amphibians: 3 lizards Birds: important seabird rookery, with 10 breeding species
SPECIES RICHNESS:
few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, green turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 1
  

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, formerly settled, now only caretaker
  Population: 4 (1988)   Density: 1.1 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 0.0%/yr   Stable
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations, former phosphate mining
HUMAN IMPACTS:
19th century phosphate mining, settled 1846 to 1930's; coconut plantations; water cistern on South Islet; inhabited by caretaker and family in 1988
DATA RELIABILITY: good recent    Data Rel. Indicator: 3
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 14   High
CI-Marine: 4   Low
REFERENCES:
Teebaki, Katino. 1988. Report of visit to Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands. Unpublished report of Wildlife Unit, Kiritimati, November 1988
Last updated: 07/09/90

Enderbury     [1517]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 3.42º S   Long : 171.50º W
Area: 5.1 sq. km   Altitude: 7 m
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 65 km   group: 700 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 102
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Mostly atoll scrub and grasses with small groves of trees; fringing reef 50- 200 m wide
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  18 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 2 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
  most important green turtle nesting area in Phoenix group
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, abandoned in 1979
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: former military base, former phosphate mining
Conservation support: tenure
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 4   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Flint     [1855]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 11.42º S   Long : 151.80º W
Area: 3.2 sq. km   Altitude: 7 m
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 170 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 124
ISLAND TYPE: elongate low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
CLIMATE:   tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 1
Little native vegetation
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 98%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  14 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  small seabird rookery, green turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 1
  feral dogs (1975)
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, formerly settled, visited occasionally
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: large coconut plantations, former phosphate mining
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 2   Low
Last updated: 01/05/89

Kanton (Canton, Abariringa)    [1516]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 2.83º S   Long : 171.67º W
Area: 9.1 sq. km   Altitude: 5 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 9.1 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 65 km   group: 900 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 105
ISLAND TYPE: atoll      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 3    Marine: 3
Some atoll forest with Cordia and Tournefortia, mostly atoll scrub and grasses; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon with patch reefs
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  18 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats and dogs
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, caretakers only
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: former military base
  Accessibility: airport
Conservation support: tenure
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 4   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Kiritimati (Christmas)    [1850]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 2.00º N   Long : 157.50º W
Area: 321.0 sq. km   Altitude: 4 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 321.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 300 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 129
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with one large island      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Atoll with one large island, some dunes reaching 13 m; almost landlocked lagoon divided into areas of various salinities, many supersaline
CLIMATE: dry  tropical 
WATER BALANCE: intermittent drought
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought, "El Nino" effects on seabird food supplies
   Threat Indicator: 2
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 4    Marine: 4
3 patches of Pisonia atoll forest, mostly scrub savanna and scrub, grasslands, some areas bare; lagoon, saline ponds, windward and leeward atoll reefs (CRD)
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 98%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  41 1 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 3 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 18-41 native plants, 1 endemic 50 introduced species Cuscuta campestris, endemic Reptiles/amphibians: 3 lizards Birds: very important seabird rookery, with 33 species, 18 breeding, 12 populations of international importance Acrocephalus aequinoctialis (Christmas Island Reed Warbler) group endemic, common (1,000) Pterodroma alba (Phoenix Petrel) 24,000, largest colony Puffinus nativitatus (Christmas Shearwater) 12,000 Puffinus pacificus (Wedge-tailed Shearwater) 1 million Sterna fuscata (Sooty Tern) 8 million, largest colony
SPECIES RICHNESS:
poor
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 1  Group: 1
    one endemic plant
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 3   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery, some green turtle nesting
  world's largest atoll in land area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  feral cats threaten seabirds

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, settled in 1882
  Population: 1265 (1978)   Density: 3.9 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 2.1%/yr   Increasing
  Major Human Activities: coconuts, tourism
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Population doubled from 1973 to 1978, settled since 1882 by immigrant workers; coconut plantations 51.7 sq. km; major nuclear weapons test site 1956-1962; military installations 1942-1967, now abandoned; projects for brine shrimp and salt production in lagoon; some tourism.
  Habitat: small settlements   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Accessibility: airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 50%   Human Threat Indicator: 2
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 446 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
Conservation support: government support, legislation, wildlife unit
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 0  Marine: 0
  Number: 5   Area: Terrestrial: 0.7 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
Wildlife Sanctuary status with specific closed areas (strict nature reserves): Cook Islet 22 ha Motu Tabu 4 ha Ngaon te Taake 26 ha Northwest Point Motu Upua 19 ha
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 5
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 8   Moderate
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 01/05/89

Kuria     [1501]
Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
Country: Kiribati: Pacific
Lat: 0.26º NLong: 173.37º E Region: Oceania 11
Area: 12.7 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
ISLAND TYPE: two low coral islands

Maiana     [1508]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 1.00º N   Long : 173.00º E
Area: 27.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 27.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 35 km   group: 700 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 92
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 1 main islet      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 3
Coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
Last updated: 07/12/88

Makin Meang (Little Makin)    [1500]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 3.23º N   Long : 172.95º E
Area: 5.4 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 5.4 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 3 km   group: 400 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3600 km    Isolation Index: 82
ISLAND TYPE: low coral      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 1
Dense vegetation; fringing reef
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
   turtle nesting area
  nearby Katangateman sandbank turtle nesting area
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Malden     [1851]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 4.00º S   Long : 155.00º W
Area: 39.3 sq. km   Altitude: 8 m
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 200 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 126
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 3
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Low coral island with enclosed saline lagoon with numerous small coral islets and underground connections to the sea
CLIMATE: dry  tropical 
WATER BALANCE: intermittent drought
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Atoll scrub and grasses including Heliotropium anomalum; saline lagoon, fringing reefs
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 98%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  9 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 2 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 9 native plants 7 introduced species Reptiles/amphibians: 2 lizards Birds: important seabird rookery, with 19 species, 11-12 breeding
SPECIES RICHNESS:
few
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 1
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 3   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery, small green turtle nesting area
  archaeological remains of early Polynesian settlement
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  few feral cats

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, inhabited 1849-1979
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: former phosphate mining, former military base
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Phosphate mined 1849-1927, low grade mineral remains; gypsum deposits; military airstrip and observation post 1958-1979; now uninhabited.
  Accessibility: airport
Conservation support: government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 39.3 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
Wildlife Sanctuary and closed area (strict nature reserve)
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 8   Moderate
CI-Marine: 5   Moderate
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 01/05/89

Manra (Sydney)    [1520]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 4.50º S   Long : 171.50º W
Area: 4.4 sq. km   Altitude: 6 m
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 85 km   group: 500 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 99
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Atoll forest and scrub of 14 species; fringing reef 50 m wide
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  14 0 1
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 2 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats, dogs, pigs
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, formerly inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantation, former phosphate mining
Conservation support: tenure, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 5   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Marakei     [1506]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 2.00º N   Long : 173.42º E
Area: 10.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 10.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 30 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 89
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 2 large islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 3
Coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 2   Low
CI-Marine: 4   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

McKean     [1522]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 3.67º S   Long : 174.17º W
Area: 0.6 sq. km   Altitude: 5 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 0.6 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 125 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 103
ISLAND TYPE: low coral      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Atoll scrub of 7 species; fringing reefs 100-200 m wide
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  7 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 1 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: former phosphate mining
Conservation support: tenure, legislation, government support
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 0.6 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 4   Low
CI-Marine: 4   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Nikumaroro (Gardner)    [1523]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 4.75º S   Long : 174.76º W
Area: 4.1 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 4.1 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 125 km   group: 500 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 101
ISLAND TYPE: atoll      Natural Protection Indicator: 2
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Atoll forest and scrub; windward and leeward atoll reefs 100-300 m wide, lagoon with numerous coral heads and patch reefs
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  17 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 5 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  small seabird rookery turtle nesting area
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, formerly inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations
Conservation support: tenure, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 4   Low
CI-Marine: 4   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Nikunau     [1504]
Group: Kingsmill Group, Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
Country: Kiribati: Pacific
Lat: 1.33º SLong: 176.42º E Region: Oceania 11
Area: 18.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
ISLAND TYPE: low coral, small closed lagoon

Nonouti     [1511]
   Group: Kingsmill Group   Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 0.73º S   Long : 174.47º E
Area: 25.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 25.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 40 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 90
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with more than 8 islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Pisonia atoll forest on one islet; coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
  Numatong islet with forest, sandbank
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations, subsistence agriculture
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 3   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Onotoa     [1512]
   Group: Kingsmill Group   Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 1.92º S   Long : 175.57º E
Area: 13.5 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 13.5 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Submerged area <100 m: 0 sq. km   Reef area: 0 sq. km   Lagoon area: 54 sq. km
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 40 km   group: 400 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 85
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 3 large islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE: dry  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Atoll scrub; coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon (CRD)
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  60 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 0  Marine: 2
poor
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 0   Marine: 0
  studied by 1951 expedition
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, heavily populated
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations, subsistence agriculture
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 1   Low
CI-Marine: 7   Moderate
Last updated: 07/12/88

Orona (Hull)    [1521]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 4.58º S   Long : 172.33º W
Area: 3.9 sq. km   Altitude: 9 m
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 110 km   group: 500 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 100
ISLAND TYPE: atoll      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Atoll forest and scrub of 19 species; windward and leeward atoll reefs 80-240 m wide, lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  19 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 4 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats, dogs, pigs
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, formerly inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantation
Conservation support: tenure, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 4   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Rawaki (Phoenix)    [1519]
   Group: Archipelago: Phoenix Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 3.72º S   Long : 171.42º W
Area: 0.5 sq. km   Altitude: 6 m
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 75 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 4500 km    Isolation Index: 100
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 1
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 2
Atoll scrub of 6 species; fringing reef 30-100 m wide
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  6 0 1
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery, turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral rabbits
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, phosphate mined 1859-1871
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
Conservation support: tenure, government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 0.5 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 4   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Starbuck     [1852]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 5.62º S   Long : 155.92º W
Area: 16.2 sq. km   Altitude: 5 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 16.2 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 200 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 126
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 4
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Low coral island with several internal saline lagoons at times drying up completely
CLIMATE: dry  tropical 
WATER BALANCE: intermittent drought
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 2
Impoverished atoll scrub; salt ponds, fringing reefs
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 98%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  7 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 7 species Birds: important seabird rookery, with 15 species, 3-11 breeding including Sterna fuscata (Sooty Tern) 1.5-3 million pairs
SPECIES RICHNESS:
very few
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  major seabird rookery, green turtle nesting area
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, inhabited 1870-1920
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: former phosphate mining
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Phosphate mined 1870-1893; uninhabited since 1920
Conservation support: government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 16.2 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
Wildlife Sanctuary and closed area (strict nature reserve)
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 7   Moderate
CI-Marine: 6   Moderate
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 01/05/89

Tabiteuea     [1515]
   Group: Kingsmill Group   Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 1.42º S   Long : 174.83º E
Area: 49.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 49.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 40 km   group: 500 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 88
ISLAND TYPE: 2 large low islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 3
Secondary vegetation; coconuts; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery
  Namauri islet
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: coconut plantations, subsistence agriculture
  Accessibility: airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 1
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 2   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Tabuaeran (Fanning)    [1849]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 3.87º N   Long : 159.37º W
Area: 33.7 sq. km   Altitude: 4 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 33.7 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 100 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 121
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with 3 principal islets      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Atoll with 3 principal islets almost encircling closed lagoon
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 2    Marine: 2
Pisonia and Messerschmidia atoll forest, atoll scrub; narrow fringing reef, closed lagoon
   Percent of land: Forested: 99%  Developed: 0%  Degraded: 0%
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  22 2 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 5 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 22 native plants, 2 endemic 80 introduced species Reptiles/amphibians: 5 lizards Marine life: 70 species of hard corals Birds: formerly 27 seabirds, with 12 breeding, now 6 breeding in trees
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 0  Marine: 3
few
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 1  Group: 1
    two endemic plants
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 3   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats and pigs

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, settled since 1848
  Population: 434 (1978)   Density: 12.9 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 2.1%/yr   Increasing
  Major Human Activities: coconuts, subsistence agriculture,, subsistence fishing
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Nineteenth century phosphate mining; old cable station; half planted to coconuts
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 99%   Human Threat Indicator: 3
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 446 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 6
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 16   High
CI-Marine: 7   Moderate
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 01/05/89

Tamana     [1502]
Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
Country: Kiribati: Pacific
Lat: 2.50º SLong: 176.00º E Region: Oceania 11
Area: 5.2 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island

Tarawa     [1513]
   Group: Archipelago: Gilbert Islands
   Country: Kiribati   Region: Oceania 11
Lat: 1.50º N   Long : 173.00º E
Area: 20.0 sq. km   Altitude: ? m
Land < 5 m elevation: 20.0 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 10 km   group: 600 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3500 km    Isolation Index: 87
ISLAND TYPE: atoll with more than 15 islets     Natural Protection Indicator: 0
CLIMATE:   tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: drought
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 3    Marine: 3
Atoll scrub; coconuts; mangroves; windward and leeward atoll reef and lagoon, sunken reef
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, urban centre and capital
  Population: 20000 (1985)   Density: 1000 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 2.2%/yr   Increasing
  Major Human Activities: government, coconuts, subsistence agriculture
  Accessibility: port, airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 12%   Human Threat Indicator: 0
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 442 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY:    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 40
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 2   Low
CI-Marine: 3   Low
Last updated: 07/12/88

Teraina (Washington)    [1848]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 5.00º N   Long : 161.00º W
Area: 7.4 sq. km   Altitude: 5 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 7.4 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 100 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 121
ISLAND TYPE: low coral with central lake      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:

CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
WATER BALANCE: abundant rainfall, surface and groundwater
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 4    Marine: 1
Pisonia atoll forest with epiphytes and fern undergrowth, atoll scrub; bogs, lake; fringing reef
   Percent of land: Forested: 99%  Developed: 0%  Degraded: 0%
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 99%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  35 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 35 flowering plants Birds: Acrocephalus aequinoctialis (Christmas Island Reed Warbler) group endemic, common Vini kuhli (Kuhl's Lory or Scarlet-breasted Lorikeet) introduced (endemic to Rimatara), several hundred
SPECIES RICHNESS:
poor
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 1
    one group endemic bird
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 3   Marine: 0
  seabird rookery, small green turtle nesting area
  unique bogs
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 2
  feral cats and pigs

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, settled since 1860's
  Population: 416 (1978)   Density: 56.2 persons/sq. km
  Growth Rate: 2.1%/yr   Increasing
  Major Human Activities: coconuts, subsistence agriculture,, subsistence fishing
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Coconut plantations; canals cut through bogs
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 99%   Human Threat Indicator: 3
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 446 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 7
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 15   High
CI-Marine: 1   Low
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 01/05/89

Vostok     [1853]
   Group: Archipelago: Line Islands
   Country: Kiribati - Line Islands   Region: Oceania 15
Lat: 10. 8º S   Long : 152.38º W
Area: 0.2 sq. km   Altitude: 5 m
Land < 5 m elevation: 0.2 sq. km   Sea level rise risk: 9
Depth to nearest land: 5000 m
Nearest island: 200 km   group: 1600 km
Nearest continent: North America    Distance: 5100 km    Isolation Index: 126
ISLAND TYPE: low coral island      Natural Protection Indicator: 5
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Low coral island with peat soil up to 1 m thick over phosphatic hardpan
CLIMATE:   tropical 
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 1    Marine: 2
Pure Pisonia grandis forest reaching 30 m height on 10-15 ha, Boerhavia repens only other plant reported; one skink, coconut crabs and Polynesian rats; fringing and sunken reefs.
   Percent of land: Forested: 50%  Developed: 0%  Degraded: 0%
   Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: 98%  Mangrove: 0%
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  2 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 1 0 0
Land birds 0 0 0
Mammals 1 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: 2 species Reptiles/amphibians: 1 skink Birds: small seabird rookery, with 8 breeding species in trees Mammals: Polynesian rat
SPECIES RICHNESS:
only 2 plants
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 2   Marine: 0
  small seabird rookery,
  valuable for its species-poor system and unaltered state
HUMAN OCCUPATION: Uninhabited, never inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: none
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Little human impact; peat once set afire by visitors (1974); least disturbed of the Line Islands
Conservation support: government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 7  Marine: 0
  Number: 1   Area: Terrestrial: 0.2 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
Wildlife Sanctuary
DATA RELIABILITY: old    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 12   Moderate
CI-Marine: 6   Moderate
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 01/05/89

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