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ISLAND DIRECTORY


Islands of Samoa [Western Samoa]

Savai'i (Savaii)    [966]
   Group: Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 13.60º S   Long : 172.45º W
Area: 1717.6 sq. km   Altitude: 1858 m
Shoreline: 192.4 km (scale 1:1000000)   Coastal Index: 0.1120
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 10 km   group: 500 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3800 km    Isolation Index: 87
ISLAND TYPE: high volcanic shield      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Active volcano last erupted in 1905-1911, lava flows with different stages of colonization
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: volcanic eruptions, cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 2
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 15
Lowland and montane rain forests with different types depending on age of volcanic substrate; cloud forest with many endemics; scrub and grasslands on recent lava flows and uplands; crater marshes; swamp forest; mangroves, rocky shores, fringing reefs along some of coast   Forest  Coral reefs,  Mangroves
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  0 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 0
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 0 1 3
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Plants: rich endemic flora at higher elevations Insects: Hypolimnas thompsoni (butterfly) group endemic Papilio godeffroyi (butterfly) group endemic, rare/indeterminate Birds: Aplonis atrifuscus (Samoan Starling) group endemic, Rare Didunculus strigirostris (Tooth-billed Pigeon, Manume'a) endemic, Savai'i and Upolu, Vulnerable (RDB) Erythrura cyaneovirens (Red-headed Parrot-Finch) declining Gymnomyza samoensis (Black-breasted Honeyeater) group endemic, Rare Halcyon recurvirostris* (Flat-billed Kingfisher) group endemic Lalage sharpei (Samoan Triller) group endemic Myiagra albiventris (White-vented Flycatcher) group endemic Pachycephala flavifrons (Yellow-fronted Whistler) group endemic Pareudiastes pacificus (Samoan Wood Rail) group endemic, probably extinct Rhipidura nebulosa (Samoan Fantail) Zosterops samoensis (Savai'i White-eye) endemic
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 2  Marine: 0
moderate
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 1  Group: 2
    plant group endemism 25%
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
  active volcano
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  some weeds affecting forest regeneration

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: logging, subsistence agriculture
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Subsistence agriculture and plantations in most coastal areas; extensive logging destroying most harvestable forest areas; some reforestation
  Habitat: villages   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Accessibility: airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 61%   Human Threat Indicator: 2
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 831 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
Conservation support: government support, legislation
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 5
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 15   High
CI-Marine: 2   Low
REFERENCES:

Last updated: 23/12/90

Upolu ('Upolu)    [965]
   Group: Archipelago: Samoa Islands
   Country: Samoa   Region: Oceania 9
Lat: 13.95º S   Long : 171.70º W
Area: 1125.1 sq. km   Altitude: 1143 m
Shoreline: 188.3 km (scale 1:1000000)   Coastal Index: 0.1674
Depth to nearest land: 4000 m
Nearest island: 10 km   group: 500 km
Nearest continent: Australia    Distance: 3800 km    Isolation Index: 87
ISLAND TYPE: high volcanic shield      Natural Protection Indicator: 0
GEOLOGY/SOILS:
Volcanic cones along east-west ridge
CLIMATE: wet  tropical 
CATASTROPHIC THREATS: cyclones
   Threat Indicator: 1
ECOSYSTEMS:           Number of Ecosystems - Terrestrial: 13
Several lowland and montane rain forest types; swamp forest; scrub and fernland; grasslands; crater lakes, streams and other fresh water habitats; mangroves; extensive broad fringing reefs and shallow lagoons with seagrasses along most of coast.   Forest  Coral reefs,  Mangroves
SPECIES NUMBERS: Total Endemic Threatened (EVRI)
Plants  0 0 0
Butterflies 0 0 0
Land snails 0 0 1
Rept/Amphib 0 0 0
Land birds 33 0 1
Mammals 0 0 0

SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST:
Insects: Hypolimnas thompsoni (butterfly) group endemic Papilio godeffroyi (butterfly) group endemic, rare/indeterminate Other invertebrates: Thaumatodon hystrellicoides (land snail) threatened by ants Birds: Aplonis atrifuscus (Samoan Starling) group endemic, Rare Didunculus strigirostris (Tooth-billed Pigeon, Manume'a) endemic, Savai'i and Upolu, Vulnerable (RDB) Gymnomyza samoensis (Black-breasted Honeyeater) group endemic, Rare Halcyon recurvirostris* (Flat-billed Kingfisher) group endemic Lalage sharpei (Samoan Triller) group endemic Myiagra albiventris (White-vented Flycatcher) group endemic Pachycephala flavifrons (Yellow-fronted Whistler) group endemic Rhipidura nebulosa (Samoan Fantail)
SPECIES RICHNESS:   Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: 1  Marine: 0
moderate
ENDEMISM: Terrestrial:   Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 2
  Marine endemic species: 0   Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: 0  Group: 0
SPECIAL FEATURES :   Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: 1   Marine: 0
   some turtle nesting
INVASIVE SPECIES:     Invasive Species Indicator: 3
  

HUMAN OCCUPATION: Inhabited, capital Apia and urban area
  Population: 0    Density: 0.0 persons/sq. km
  Major Human Activities: government, coconuts, tourism
HUMAN IMPACTS:
Capital and urban centre with some small industry; lower slopes largely cultivated, coconut plantations; increasing agricultural clearing at high elevations and in water catchment areas; some logging
  Habitat: villages   Urban Pop:Urban Indicator: 0
  Accessibility: port, airport
  Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: 61%   Human Threat Indicator: 2
  Gross Domestic Product: $ 831 per capita    Economic Pressure Indicator: 0
Conservation support: government support, legislation
PROTECTED AREAS:    Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: 1  Marine: 0
  Number: 4   Area: Terrestrial: 29.2 sq. km    Marine: 0 sq. km
O Le Pupu - Pu'e National Park (II) 2,857 ha Palolo Deep Marine Reserve (IV) (CRD) (marine 22 ha) Tusitala Historic and Nature Reserve 64 ha Togitogiga Recreation Reserve 3 ha Proposed protected areas in the 1975 National Parks System report: Lake Lanoto'o National Park Lake Olomaga National Park Mount Vaea Nature Reserve (expansion) Apolimafou Nature Reserve Vaipu Nature Reserve Tiavi Nature Reserve Fuipisia/Sopo'aga Nature Reserve Matautu Nature Reserve Pata Nature Reserve Fusi/Tafitoala Nature Reserve Sa'anapu Strict Nature Reserve Aganoa Nature Reserve Nu'usafe'e Island Nature Reserve Salamumu Nature Reserve Satuimalufilufi/Fuailolo'o Coral Sanctuary Fusi/Tafitoala Coral Sanctuary Nu'usafe'e Island/Tafatafa Coral Sanctuary
DATA RELIABILITY: partial    Data Rel. Indicator: 2
HUMAN IMPACT INDEX     HI: 5
CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX   CI-Terrestrial: 10   Moderate
CI-Marine: 1   Low
REFERENCES:
Nunn, Patrick D. 1988. Potential impacts of projected sea-level rise on Pacific Island states (Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and Western Samoa): a preliminary report. In: Interim report on potential impacts of greenhouse gas generated climate change and projected sea-level rise on Pacific Island states of the SPREP region. UNEP(OCA)/WG.2/20
Last updated: 05/12/88

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Page last updated: 02/03/98