UN SYSTEM-WIDE EARTHWATCH Web Site
ISLAND DIRECTORY FIELD LIST

Summary description of each Field in the directory [field size, format]
* Field in database but not presently included in directory entry



COUNTRY FIELDS

NOTE: In numerical fields, a zero often indicates that an accurate figure is not available, not that the value is zero.

C1. COUNTRY: Full name of country or territory [40,Xxxxxx] See index by country
*C2. SHORT NAME: Short name of country [15,Xxxxxx]
*C3. CMC: Conservation Monitoring Centre area code [2,XX]
*C4. ISO: International Standards Organization country code [2,XX]
*C5. UN: United Nations country code [3,999]
C6. (POLITICAL STATUS: Political status (i.e. independent (1960) from )  [27,Xxxxxx]
C7. METRO): Metropolitan country or former colonizer [30,Xxxxxx]
*C8. REGION: Region or biogeographic province from standard list [8,Xxxxxx]
C9. LAND AREA: Land area of the country in square kilometres [9]
C10. SEA AREA: Sea area of the country within the 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone in square kilometres [10]
C11. POPULATION: Human population [10]
C12. (Year of the population census or estimate) [4]
C13. DENSITY: Population density in persons per square kilometre [3]
C14. GROWTH RATE: Annual percentage population growth rate based on most recent 5-year average [3,9.9]
C15. GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENT/SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY: Text description of the government authorities responsible for conservation, environment and sustainable development  [memo field]
C16. ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION: Text description of legislation concerning environment, conservation, development planning, etc.  [memo field]
C17. ENVIRONMENT/SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS: Text description of non-governmental organizations concerned with the environment, conservation and sustainable development [memo field]
C18. SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST: Text description of the country flora and fauna, including species of conservation interest at the country level  [memo field]
TABLE OF NUMBER OF ISLANDS IN THE COUNTRY BY SIZE
C19. Number of islands over 17,000 square kilometres [2]
C20. Number of islands between 10,000 and 17,000 sq. km. [2]
C21. Number of islands between 1,000 and 10,000 sq. km. [2]
C22. Number of islands between 100 and 1,000 sq. km. [2]
C23. Number of islands between 10 and 100 sq. km. [4]
C24. Number of islands between 1 and 10 sq. km. [4]
C25. Number of islands less than 1 sq. km. [4]
C26. Number of islands of unknown area [5]
C27. TOTAL: Total number of islands (sum of 19 through 26) [5]
C28. REFERENCES: References to principal sources [memo field]
C29. POP AGR/FISH/MINING: Percentage of the economically active population in agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining [2]
C30. GDP/Capita: Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in US$) [5]
C31. Income/Capita: Income per capita (in US$) [5]
C32. GDP/Capita 1960: Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in US$) in 1960 [5]
C33. GDP/Capita 1970: Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in US$) in 1970 [5]
C34. GDP/Capita 1980: Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in US$) in 1980 [5]
C35. GDP/Capita 1990: Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in US$) in 1990 [5]
C36. GDP/Capita PPP: Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in US$) at Purchasing Power Parity [5]
C37. GNP: Gross National Product (GNP) in US$ billions [7,99999.9]
C38. Annual GNP Growth Rate 1980-1993: Annual percent growth rate in GNP 1980-1993 [4,99.9]
C39. GNP/Capita: Gross National Product per capita in US$ [5]
C40. Annual Growth Rate GNP/Capita: Annual growth rate in GNP per capita [4,99.9]
C41. OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE: Total net Overseas Development Assistance received in US$ millions [4]
C42. ODA%GNP: Overseas Development Assistance as percent of GNP [5,999.9]
C43. ODA/Capita: Overseas Development Assistance per capita in US$ [3]
C44. POP 1960: Human population in 1960 [6,9999.9]
C45. EST. POP 2000: Estimated population in 2000  [6,9999.9]
C46. GROWTH RATE 1960: Population growth rate (percent) in 1960  [5,999.9]
C47. versus URBAN POP 1960: Urban population as percent of total population in 1960 [3]  as compared to C48 below
C48. URBAN POP: Urban population as percent of total population [3]
C49. (Year of urban population figure) [4]
C50. Annual Growth: Annual growth rate in urban population [5,999.9]
C51. LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy at birth in years [4,99.9]
C52. versusINFANT MORTALITY 1960: Infant mortality per 1000 live births in 1960 [3]
as compared to C53 below
C53. INFANT MORTALITY: Infant mortality per 1000 live births [3]
C54. (Year of infant mortality figure) [4]
C55. LITERACY: Adult literacy rate in percent of population [5,999.9]
C56. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX: Human Development Index (HDI) calculated by UNDP (1994) [5,9.999]
C57. TOTAL FOREST AREA: Forest cover in 1000 hectares (1995) [7]
C58. % of land area (PERCENT FOREST AREA): Forest cover as percent of land area [4,99.9]
C59. ha/capita(FOREST PER CAPITA): Forest area in hectares per capita [4,99.9]
C60. NATURAL FOREST AREA: Area of country covered by natural forest in 1000 hectares
(1995) [6]
C61. ANNUAL CHANGE IN FOREST: Percent annual change in forest cover 1990-1995 [5,999.9]
C62. ARABLE LAND: Arable land as percent of land area [4,99.9]
C63. versusELECTRICITY 1970: Electricity consumption kilowatt/hours per capita in 1970 [4]  as compared to C64 below
C64. ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION: Electricity consumption kilowatt/hours per capita (1994) [4]
C65. versusTRADITIONAL FUEL 1973: Traditional fuel consumption as percent of total in 1973 [2]  as compared to 1993 figure in C66 below
C66. TRADITIONAL FUEL CONSUMPTION (1993): Traditional fuel consumption as percent of total in 1993 [2]
C67. INTERNAL RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES: Internal renewable water resources per capita 1995 in 1000 cu.m/year [5,999.9]
C68. SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION (1990-92): Food supply from fish and seafood per capita in kilogrammes per year (1990-92) [2]
C69. CHANGE SINCE 1980-82: Percent change in fish/seafood consumption per capita from 1980-82 to 1990-92 [4]
C70. CHANGE IN ANNUAL MARINE CATCH 1980-82 to 1990-92: Annual marine fish catch percent change 1981-83 to 1991-93 [4]
*C71. ECOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY: Ecological Vulnerability Index [4] - not yet defined
*C72. ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY: Economic Vulnerability Index [4] - not yet defined
C73. Last updated: Date (day/month/year) when country record last updated [8]



ISLAND FIELDS

Summary description of each Field and Indicator in the directory [field size, format]
* Field in database but not presently included in directory entry

NOTE: In numerical fields, a zero often indicates that an accurate figure is not available, not that the value is zero.

1. ISLAND NAME: Name of the island in English  [40,Xxxxxxx]  See index of islands
2. Group: Name of island group (if part of a group) [40,Xxxxxxx]
3. Archipelago: Name of the larger grouping or archipelago  [40,Xxxxxxx]
4. Country: Country - territorial unit - subunit [40,Xxxxxxx]
*5. CMC: Conservation Monitoring Centre area code [2,XX]
6. *RS: Abbreviation for Regional Seas programme, if any [5,XXXXX]
      MED=Mediterranean; CEP=Caribbean Environment Programme; SEPCF=South-East Pacific; SPREP=South Pacific Regional Environment Programme; EAS=East Asian Seas; SAS=South Asian Seas; KAP=Kuwait Action Plan; RED=Red Sea & Gulf of Aden; EAF=East Africa; WACAF=West and Central Africa; SWAT=South-West Atlantic; OSPAR=OSPAR (Oslo and Paris) Commission; HELCOM=Helsinki Commission; NOWPA=North-West Pacific Action Plan; ECP=East-Central Pacific
7. Region: Region or biogeographic province from standard list [20,Xxxxxxx]
8. Ocean: Ocean (or Sea if not part of an ocean)  [15,Xxxxxxx]
See the table of islands by ocean.
9. (Other Names): Other names for the island (foreign language, obsolete, variant spellings) in parentheses, with most frequently used first  [40,(Xxxxxx,Xxxxxx)]
10. including: Small nearby (or satellite) islands included in island description, preceded by "including"  [40,including Xxxxxxx]
11. Lat: Latitude in degrees and decimal fractions of a degree [6,99.999] (measured at the geographic centre of the island)
*12. LAT_MS: Minutes and seconds of latitude (automatically converted to decimals), and N or S  [7,99 99 X]
13. Long: Longitude in degrees and decimal fractions of a degree [7,999.999]
*14. LONG_MS: Minutes and seconds of longitude (automatically converted to decimals), and E or W  [7,99 99 X]
15. Area: Land area of the island in square kilometres to nearest tenth [8,999999.9]
See the table of islands by land area.
16. Altitude: Altitude of the highest point on the island in metres [4]
See the table of islands by altitude (for islands over 400 m).
17. Submerged area <100m: Underwater area of the island down to 100 metres depth in square kilometres [6]
18. Reef area: Area of coral reefs down to 10 metres depth in square kilometres [6]
19. Lagoon area: Area of lagoon in square kilometres [6]
20. Shoreline: Length of shoreline in kilometres to nearest tenth [7,99999.9]
21. Coastal Index: Coastal Index calculated from shoreline divided by land area [6,9.9999]
See explanation of island indicator Coastal Index
22. (scale 1:): Scale of map from which shoreline information was taken, since shoreline length is highly dependent on map scale.  1:[8,99999999]
23. Land < 5m elevation: Area of the island less than 5 m above sea level (extrapolated if necessary from half of the area below the 10 m curve) in square kilometres [6]
24. Sea level rise risk: Indicator for vulnerability to sea level rise, based on percentage of island area below 5 m elevation [1] See explanation of island indicator
25. Nearest island: Distance in kilometres to nearest similar sized or larger island, or to the nearest continent if no nearer island [5]
26. group: Distance in kilometres from the island group or archipelago to the nearest other group or archipelago, or to the nearest continent if no nearer group or archipelago [5]
27. Nearest continent: Name of nearest continent [15,Xxxxxxx]
28. Distance: Distance in kilometres to nearest continent [5]
[NOTE: for a single remote island with no nearer island or group, the distance to the nearest continent is repeated in 25, 26 and 28.]
29. Isolation Index: Indicator of island isolation based on the sum of the square roots of the distances to the nearest island, the nearest group and the nearest continent [2] See explanation of island indicator Isolation Index
See the table of more isolated islands.
30. Depth to nearest land: Minimum water depth in metres between the island or island group and a larger landmass, important in determining how isolated the island was during the low sea level of the ice ages [4]
*31. DOMINANT: Letter code for the predominant island type [1,X] (for internal use):
      C=continental; V=volcanic; A=atoll; L=low island; R=raised/elevated coral isl.
*32. OTHER: Letter code for secondary island type/structure where this co-occurs [1,X] (for internal use)
33. ISLAND TYPE: Short word description of island type [30,xxxx xxxx]
See the tables of islands by geological type: atoll, low islands, raised coral, volcanic, continental.
34. GEOLOGY/SOILS: Text description of island form, structure, geology and soils [memo field]
CLIMATE includes the following fields:
35. RAINFALL TYPE: Rainfall category: wet, seasonal or monsoonal, dry [15,xxxxxx]
36. TEMPERATURE TYPE: Temperature category: tropical, subtropical, temperate,
subpolar, polar [15,xxx]
37. CLIMATE: Short word description of climate (in addition to rainfall/temperature) [30,xxx]
 38. [reserved for future climate codes]
39. WATER BALANCE: Short word description of water resources and balance (i.e. abundant surface water, seasonally restricted ground water, only rainwater catchment with periodic drought, etc.) [50,xxxx xxxx]
40. CATASTROPHIC THREATS: Major large-scale natural or man-made catastrophic threats to the island environment that might wipe out a species or ecosystem: cyclones (typhoons, hurricanes); volcanic eruption; earthquake/tsunami; drought; major fire; oil spill; acid rain, etc.  [55,xxxx, xxxx]
41. Threat Indicator VU: Numeric vulnerability indicator based on the number of threats in 40.  [1] See explanation of island indicator Threat
42. Natural Protection Indicator NP: based on remoteness (from the Isolation Index), lack of inhabitants, and few invasive introduced species (low invasive species indicator).  [1]
See explanation of island indicator Natural Protection
*43. INCLUDE: Code for inclusion or exclusion of entry from directory, and for type of directory coverage [for internal use only]
44. ECOSYSTEMS: Text description of ecosystems occurring on and around the island, with reference to standard lists of ecosystems/habitats, including subdivisions or distinctive formations within the standard types, as well as the area or % coverage, and present status of the ecosystems if known.  [memo field]
45. Percent of land: Forested: Present percent (0-99%) of land area covered by forest (if present but % unknown, enter "-9") [2]
46. Annual forest change: Annual percent change in forest cover (negative or positive) [4]
47. Developed: Percent of land area developed for agriculture, urban or other use [2]
48. Degraded: Percent of land classed as degraded [2]
49. Percent shoreline: Coral Reef: Percent of coastline with coral reefs (-9=present but % unknown) [2]
50. Mangrove: Percent of coastline with mangroves (-9=present but % unknown) [2]
51. Number of  Ecosystems - Terrestrial: Count of the number of terrestrial ecosystem or biome types present (using the standard classification)  [2]
52. Marine: Count of the number of marine ecosystems/biomes present [2]
53. SPECIES OF CONSERVATION INTEREST: Text description of species on the island, general state of the fauna and flora; can include list of species of conservation interest [memo field] [NOTE: Text from memo fields in the Island Database cannot be formatted automatically in html and may run together when transferred to the web.]

SPECIES NUMBERS: Table of total, endemic and threatened species numbers in the best-known groups on many islands.  See table of islands by total endemic species
54. Plants - TOTAL: Total number of vascular plants (including ferns) in the native flora [6]
55.   ENDEMIC: Number of single island endemic plant species and subspecies [5]
56.   THREATENED: Number of native plants classed as Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare, Indeterminate or Unknown status (EVRI) according to IUCN criteria [5]
57. Butterflies - TOTAL: Total number of native butterflies, as a well-studied indicator group for the insects [6]
58.   ENDEMIC: Number of endemic butterflies [5]
59.   THREATENED: Number of native butterflies classed as EVRI [5]
60. Land snails - TOTAL: Total number of native land snails, important for adaptive evolutionary radiation on many islands [5]
61.   ENDEMIC: Number of endemic land snails [4]
62.   THREATENED: Number of land snails classed as EVRI [4]
63. Rept/Amphib - TOTAL: Total number of native reptiles and amphibians [3]
64.   ENDEMIC: Number of endemic reptiles/amphibians [3]
65.   THREATENED: Number of reptiles/amphibians classed as EVRI [3]
66. Land birds - TOTAL: Total number of resident/breeding native land bird species and subspecies [3]
67.   ENDEMIC: Number of single island endemic birds [3]
See the table of islands by total endemic birds.
68.   THREATENED: Number of native birds classed as EVRI [3]
69. Mammals - TOTAL: Total number of native mammals [3]
70.   ENDEMIC: Number of single island endemic mammals [3]
71.   THREATENED: Number of native mammals classed as EVRI [3]
[NOTE: for all the species numbers in 54-71 above, it is the proportions of endemic and threatened species that are important; partial data may be included if it is comparable across the columns.  Explanatory notes are in the species text (53).]
72. Marine endemic species: Number of endemic coastal/shallow-water marine species [3]
73. SPECIES RICHNESS: Brief word description of species richness [30,xxxx]
74. Species Richness Indicator - Terrestrial: Numeric indicator for terrestrial species richness  [1]:
        0 = <24 plants and/or <8 birds             3 = 625-1224 plants &/or 40-55 birds
        1 = 25-224 plants &/or 9-23 birds       4 = 1225-2024 plants &/or 56-71 birds
        2 = 225-624 plants &/or 24-39 birds   5 = >2025 plants &/or >72 birds
See explanation of island indicator Species Richness
75. Marine: Numeric indicator for marine species richness [1] See explanation of island indicator Species Richness
76. ENDEMISM: Terrestrial: Brief word description of terrestrial endemism [30,xxxx]  See table of islands by total endemic species
77. ENDEMISM-Marine: Brief word description of marine endemism [30,xxxx]
78. Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Island: Numeric indicator for terrestrial island endemism [1]:
        0 = no endemic species                  4 = 150-410 endemic species
        1 = 1-5 endemic species                5 = 411-915 endemic species
        2 = 6-38 endemic species              6 = >916 endemic species
        3 = 39-149 endemic species
See explanation of island indicator Endemism
79. Marine Endemism Indicator - Island: Numeric indicator for marine island endemism [1]:
        0 = no endemic species                 4 = 13-20 endemic species
        1 = 1-2 endemic species               5 = 21-30 endemic species
        2 = 3-6 endemic species               6 = 31-42 endemic species
        3 = 7-12 endemic species
See explanation of island indicator Endemism
80. Terrestrial Endemism Indicator - Group: Numeric indicator for terrestrial species endemism in the island group (same scale as 78) [1] See explanation of island indicator Endemism
81. Marine Endemism Indicator - Group: Numeric indicator for marine species endemism in the island group (same scale as 79) [1] See explanation of island indicator Endemism
SPECIAL FEATURES including the following fields:
82. SEABIRDS: Short word description of importance for seabirds (i.e. seabird rookery) [25,xx,]
83. MARINE TURTLES: Short word description of importance for marine turtles (i.e. turtle nesting area) [32,xxxxx]
84. MARINE MAMMALS: Short word description of importance for marine mammals (i.e. seal breeding area) [25,xxxx]
85. SPECIAL FEATURES: Word description of special features of conservation importance, such as rare or unique habitats, relic ecosystems, outstanding scenic features, etc.  [60,Xxxxx]
86. Special Features Indicator - Terrestrial: Numeric indicator based on number of terrestrial special features [1]. See explanation of island indicator Special Features
87. Special Features Indicator - Marine: Numeric indicator based on number of marine special features [1]. See explanation of island indicator Special Features
88. INVASIVE SPECIES: Limited text on impact of invasive species [60,xxxx]
89. Text description of important invasive species [memo field]
90. Invasive Species Indicator: Numeric indicator based on the number and threat of invasive species [1]
        0 = few or no introductions
        1 = some introductions (i.e. rats, common weeds)
        2 = common domestic introductions: dogs, cats, pigs
        3 = some problems with invasive species
        4 = major problems with invasive species
        5 = devastated by invasive species
See explanation of island indicator Invasive Species
91. Inhabited/Uninhabited: Presence or absence of permanent human population (Y/N) [1,Y/N]
92. HUMAN OCCUPATION: Brief text description of status of human occupation (i.e. inhabited since prehistoric times; visited occasionally; site of capital city, etc.) [40,xxxx]
93. Population: Human population of the island [9] NOTE: a zero may not mean that the island is uninhabited (see field 91), but only that no population figure could be obtained for the island as such.
94. (Year of census for population figure in 93 - in parentheses) [6,(9999)]
95. Density: Population density in persons/square kilometre, based on 93 and 15 [5]
See the table of islands by population density.
96. Growth rate: Annual percentage population growth rate, based on the most recent five year estimate [4,99.9] with word description of rate of growth: <0=Decreasing; 0-1%=Stable; 1-2%=Increasing slowly; 2-3%=Increasing; >3%=Increasing rapidly.
97. Maximum known population: Maximum known population of the island at any time, past or present [9]
98. Major Human Activities - 1ST: Brief word description of predominant human subsistence/development activity [25]
99.    2ND: Word description of second most important human activity [25]
100.   3RD: Word description of third most important human activity [25]
101. HUMAN IMPACTS: Text description of significant human impacts, historic events, etc.  [memo field]
102. Urban Pop: Human population living in urban area(s) [8]
103. Habitat: Brief word description of the type of human habitat (urban centre and depopulated rural areas, coastal strip development, scattered villages, etc.) [30]
104. Urban Indicator: Numeric indicator for urbanization, based on proportion of population in urban areas [1] See explanation of island indicator Urbanization
Accessibility, including:
105. Port: Presence of a port receiving international traffic ("port") [5,port,]
106. Airport: Presence of an airport ("airport") [7,airport]
107. Annual tourist arrivals: Number of annual tourist arrivals [9]
108. Percent population in agr/mining/fishing: Percentage of the economically active population in agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing [2]
109. Human Threat Indicator: Numeric indicator for human pressure on resources, based on 108 [1]. See explanation of island indicator Human Threat
110. Gross Domestic Product: Gross domestic product or income per capita (in US$) [6] (national or territorial statistics are used if island figures are not available)
111. Economic Pressure Indicator: Numeric indicator for economic pressure on the island based on 110 [1] See explanation of island indicator Economic Pressure
112. Conservation support: Brief word listing of factors supporting or facilitating conservation action [50,xxx,xxx]: land tenure or ownership; government support; public support ; legislation
113. PROTECTED AREAS: Text description and listing of protected areas and proposed protected areas, including name, size in square kilometres, and category or type of protected status (including all types of de facto protection) [memo field]
See the table of islands with protected areas.
114.   Number: Number of protected areas providing relatively complete habitat protection (excluding bird sanctuaries/regulated hunting areas) [2]
115.   Area - Terrestrial: Area of terrestrial protected areas in square kilometres to nearest tenth [8,999999.9]
116.   Marine: Area of marine protected areas in square kilometres [6]
117. Protected Area Coverage Indicators - Terrestrial: Numeric terrestrial protected area coverage indicator based on the percentage of the island  land surface protected [1]:
            0 = <0.5% protected              4 = 25-40% protected
            1 = 0.5-4% protected             5 = 41-60% protected
            2 = 5-12% protected              6 = 61-84% protected
            3 = 13-24% protected             7 = >85% protected
See explanation of island indicator Protected Area Coverage
118. Marine: Numeric marine protected area coverage indicator based on percentage of shallow (<100 m) submarine area protected, using same scale as 117 [1] See explanation of island indicator Protected Area Coverage
119. DATA RELIABILITY: Brief word description of reliability of data on the island, including extent of research/inventories, date of sources, well documented or anecdotal, etc. [40,xxxx]
120. Data Rel. Indicator: Numeric indicator based on reliability of available data [1]:
            0 = no reliable data
            1 = poor data (both partial and out of date)
            2 = data recent but partial, or good but out of date
            3=  good recent data (within the last 10 years)
See explanation of island indicator Reliability of Data
121. HUMAN IMPACT - HI: Human Impact Indicator [2] calculated according to the following formula:
      HI = (density/50)*((growrate+1.5)/2)+HT+EP+URB+(tourism/humanpop)
           +INV+((devland+degraded)/10)
See explanation of island indicator Human Impact
See the table of islands by human impact.
122. CONSERVATION IMPORTANCE INDEX:  CI-Terrestrial: Terrestrial Conservation Importance Indicator [2] calculated using the formula:
         CI-T = 2(ERT/10+SRT)+(forest/10)+IENDT+GENDT+percent endemism
                +(plant_evri/5)+(bird_evri/5)+SpFeT+VU+NP
Less than 6 is low; 6-13 is moderate; 14-19 is high; 20-34 is very high; greater that 35 is outstanding.
See explanation of island indicator Terrestrial Conservation Importance
See the table of islands by conservation importance.
123. CI-Marine: Marine Conservation Importance Indicator [2] calculated using the formula:
        CI-M = 2(ERM/3+SRM)+(IENDM*3)+(GENDM*3)+SpFeM+VU+NP
Less than 5 is low; 5-14 is moderate; 15 and above is high.
See explanation of island indicator Marine Conservation Importance
124. REFERENCES: Listing of major references specific to the island [memo field]
126. Last updated: Date (day/month/year) when record compiled or updated [8]

[NOTE: Text from memo fields in the Island Database cannot be formatted automatically in html and may run together when transferred to the web.]



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Updated 23 July 2003